L-DOPA is a natural amino acid is detectable in food. Used to increase dopamine levels in people with Parkinson's disease. Besides being a healing agent is found in many herbal supplements, available without prescription. The effect? Increased muscle mass in athletes using L-DOPA.
Some studies have shown that taking L-DOPA increases libido and is used in bodybuilding as a means of increasing the synthesis of human growth hormone. An increase of muscle mass in athletes using L-DOPA. Improves and motor control. L-DOPA and showed remarkable effects on glucose metabolism and vasopressors properties.
L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine) is a natural amino acid present in food. The human body is synthesized from another amino acid: L-tyrosine by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase-. L-DOPA is converted into dopamine in the brain for decarboxylation process. The prefix "L-" indicates its ability levorotatsiya (compared to dekstrarotatsiyata of D-DOPA). It is a precursor molecule for the catecholamine neurotransmitter norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline).
In clinical practice, the preparation is known as Levodopa (INN) (Synonym: Dopafleks, Kaldopa).
L-DOPA is used to increase dopamine levels in Parkinson's disease and certain types of dystonia. Cross the blood-brain barrier (hemo-brain) barrier while dopamine can not. Once entered into the central nervous system Levodopa is metabolized to dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. Pyridoxal-phosphate (vitamin B6) is required as a cofactor for decarboxylation, so often prescribed in conjunction with levodopa (usually as pyridoxine).
Conversion of L-DOPA into dopamine takes place in peripheral tissues, ie outside the brain. This is the mechanism of the observed additional effects. In standard clinical practice to prescribe both a peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor - Carbidopa or Benserazide, often catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor to prevent the synthesis of dopamine in peripheral tissues. An interesting fact is that green tea is a natural decarboxylase inhibitor.
L-DOPA can be metabolized directly by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) into 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD). This pathway does not exist in a healthy human being, but is important after peripheral L-DOPA administration in patients with Parkinson's or in rare cases of patients with enzyme deficiency of aromatic amino acid L-decarboxylase (AADC).
Hypotension, especially when the dose exceeded
Nausea: less pronounced when given with food
Confusion and disorientation
Extreme emotional states - anxiety, worry, and often increased libido
Visual and auditory hallucinations
Conditions similar to amphetamine psychosis
Atherosclerosis, hypertension, glaucoma, melanoma, asthma, cardiovascular disease, endocrine disease. Limitations: in / eremennost, childhood (12 years), myocardial infarction in history.
Some studies suggest a cytotoxic role of L-DOPA. Although the drug is generally harmless to humans, some studies with rats show an increase of cytotoxic markers in cell lines plashite «phaeochromocytoma PC12», after treatment with the preparation. Other researchers observed toxic effects in cell lines of nerve cells, generating quinones and subsequent avtooksidatsiya and cell death.
A large number of herbal supplements containing standardized doses of L-DOPA and bought without a prescription. They gain great popularity in the U.S. selling over the Internet grows. The largest source of vegetable L-DOPA is tropical legume Mucuna pruriens, also known as "Velvet Bean".
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